Biomechanical Properties of the Human Tibia - Fracture Behavior and Morphology

Rabl,W.; Haid,C.; Krismer,M.
Standardized biomechanical dynamic load tests were performed to obtain fundamental information on the fracture behavior and morphology of the human tibia. After preparation, the specimens (n = 32) were loaded to breakage by ventral (one side alternately), dorsal, medial or lateral loading on a servo-hydraulic testing machine (Walter und Bai, Löhningen, Switzerland). Primary and secondary fracture lines and fissures were marked differently on the three surfaces of the tibia specimens. They were then videoscanned and digitized on a flatbed scanner to give two-dimensional fracture-line images. Load limits were 2475 to 12,206 Newton. The study revealed both direct fracture patterns with the fracture lines originating from the opposite site of impact, and indirect fracture patterns originating from the distal third of the specimens. Direct fractures occurred in 46% of the specimens after ventral loading, in 80% after medial or lateral loading, and in 100% after dorsal loading. Ventral, medial or lateral loading frequently produced direct wedge fractures of the Messerer type. Dorsal loading resulted in different direct patterns characterized by transverse fractures with longitudinal fissures at the impact site of the loading stamp. Direct transverse fractures also often showed a wedge-shaped pattern due to additional fissures. These were, however, identifiable only after maceration of the specimens and should receive closer attention in forensic practice
Forensic Sci Int 1996
Tags: human
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