Review of active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ACD-CPR). Analysis of iatrogenic complications and their biomechanical explanation

Rabl,W.; Baubin,M.; Haid,C.; Pfeiffer,K.P.; Scheithauer,R.
Our review takes a critical look at the active compression-decompression technique (ACD) for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). ACD-CPR was developed following a report of successful resuscitation performed by a medical amateur using a household plunger. The efficacy of the principle of active decompression has been demonstrated by animal and human studies. Potential iatrogenic complications from the CardioPump were evaluated only when large clinical trials were already underway. Our prospective analysis of autopsy patients and systematic randomised studies in corpses prove that ACD-CPR using the CardioPump considerably increases the rate of iatrogenic complications and especially of sternum fractures. The experimental use of the CardioPump in corpses and the analysis of a variety of different parameters, especially of the rubber cushion pads mounted in the silicone cup to prevent skin abrasions, revealed a statistically significant correlation between sternum fractures and female sex (P < 0.01) and usage of the rubber cushion pad (P = 0.045). Biomechanical studies showed that the transmission of forces from the CardioPump is greatly dependent on chest shape. The lower the sternum is sunken compared with the surrounding structures, the higher the force which is transmitted via the central area of the device onto the sternum. The rubber cushion pad shortens the distance between CardioPump and sternum by 5 mm and therefore increases the sternal loading. Sex differences in the shape of the sternum and especially the thickness may account for the significant correlation between sternum fractures and female sex
Forensic Sci Int 1997 89(3):175-183
Tags: 98030077; adverse effects; animal; Austria; autopsy; Biomechanics; Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; comparative study; complications; etiology; female; forensic; forensic medicine; Fractures; human; Iatrogenic Disease; injuries; male; methods; physiopathology; Retrospective Studies; Sternum
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