Molecular phylogeny and population structure of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in Central Europe: I. Ancient clade splitting revealed by mitochondrial haplotype markers

Meraner,A.; Brandstätter,A.; Thaler,R.; Aray,B.; Unterlechner,M.; Niederstätter,H.; Parson,W.; Zelger,R.; Dalla,Via J.; Dallinger,R.
The codling moth (Cydia pomonella L., Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is an important pest of pome fruit with global distribution. It has adapted successfully to different habitats by forming various ecotypes and populations, often termed strains, which differ among each other in several morphological, developmental, and physiological features. Many strains of Cydia pomonella have developed resistance against a broad range of chemically different pesticides. Obviously, pesticide-resistant strains must have a genetic basis inherent to the gene pool of codling moth populations, and this deserves our particular attention. The primary intention of the present study was to contribute novel information regarding the evolutionary phylogeny and phylogeography of codling moth populations in Central Europe. In addition, we aimed at testing the hypothesis that differential biological traits and response patterns towards pesticides in codling moth populations may be reflected at a mitochondrial DNA level. In particular, we wanted to test if pesticide resistance in codling moths is associated repeatedly and independently with more than one mitochondrial haplotype. To this end, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA and constructed phylogenetic trees based on three mitochondrial genes: cytochrome oxidase I (COI), the A+T-rich region of the control region (CR), and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5). The results indicate that Central European populations of Cydia pomonella are clearly divided in two ancient clades. As shown by means of a molecular clock approach, the splitting of the two clades can be dated to a time period between the lower and middle Pleistocene, about 1.29-0.20 million years ago. It is assumed that the cyclic changes of warm and cold periods during Pleistocene may have lead to the geographic separation of codling moth populations due to glaciation, giving rise to the formation of the two separate refugial clades, as already shown for many other European animal species. Due to their inclination towards developing novel detoxification gene variants, codling moth individuals from both clades independently and multifariously may have developed pesticide resistance, and this process may be ongoing. During their more recent evolutionary history, natural events such as the gradual disappearance of climate-specific geographic barriers, as well as human-aided dispersal in recent historic times, may have allowed codling moth haplotypes from the original clades to interbreed and completely merge again, creating a globally successful insect species with a gene pool capable of responding to novel selective challenges by rapid adaptation
Mol.Phylogenet.Evol. 2008 48(3):825-837
Tags: animal; Attention; Austria; control region; DNA; Europe; GENE; haplotypes; history; markers; mitochondrial DNA; mtDNA; phylogeny; population; RESISTANCE; VARIANTS
PubMed: 18620870
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